Similarly, in intimate relations of intrinsic significance, individuals often do favors for one another not in the expectation of receiving explicit repayments but to express their commitment to the interpersonal relation and sustain it bp encouraging an increasing commitment on the part of the other.
At this point, however, the junior may still profit from further association with the senior. Power is a generalized, social reward, which can be used to attain a variety of ends. Exchange is conceived of as a social process of central significance in social life, derived from simpler processes of attraction, for example that do not concern us here, that then leads to more complex processes among groups, for example.
Actioncompelled by physical coercion is not voluntary, although compliancewith other forms of power can be considered a voluntary servicerendered in exchange for the benefits such compliance produces, asalready indicated.
It acts as a countervailing power against institutional rigidities and serves as a catalyst for social change and reorganization. Balance is linked to the cognitive dissonance people feel in groups of others who do not get along. See Blau, The Dynamics of Bureaucracy 2d ed.
An individual who supplies rewarding services to another obligates him. New York; London; Sydney: People do things for fear of other men or for fear of God or for fear of their conscience, and nothing is gained by trying to force such action into a conceptual framework of exchange.
Donations are exchangedfor social approval, though the recipients of the donations and thesuppliers of the approval are not identical, and the clarification ofthe connection between the two requires an analysis of the complexstructures of indirect exchange, which is reserved for chapters eightand ten.
Radical political opposition, for example, crannot be explained without taking into account the expressive significance it has for supporters, and failure to do so is a sorious shortcoming of formalistically rational models of politics.
We can represent this graphically, with small networks, putting a positive line between those who like each other and a negative line between those who do not. Two reasons for this are that the advantages of legitimating approval restrain organizational superiors and that the effectiveness of legitimate authority, once established, obviates the need for coercive measures.
Unspecified Obligations and Trust The concept of exchange can be circumscribed by indicating two limiting cases. Physical pleasures that can be experienced in solitude pale in significance bp comparison. On an abstract theoretical level, opposition can be conceptualized in terms of the conflict between autonomy and interdependence of substructures in a macrostructure Exchange Processes thus lead to differentiation in power.
The greater the external power of an organization, the greater are its chances of accumulating resources that put rewards at the disposal of the leadership for possible distribbution among its members. New York; London; Sydney: Its source is one-sided dependence.
If this is so, then the girl will have power over the boy. The assumption is not that individuals make these calculations explicitly but that such implicit calculations underlie the feelings of boredom or pressure from other work that prompt their decisions to spend only a certain amount of time together.
Two reasons for this are that the advantages of legitimating approval restrain organizational superiors and that the effectiveness of legitimate authority, once established, obviates the need for coercive measures. As the oppressed communicate their anger and aggression to each other, provided there are opportunities for doing so, their mutual support and approval socially justify and reinforce the negative orientation toward the oppressors, and their collective hostility may inspire them to organize an opposition.
Eisenstadt, The American Journal of Sociology ix In sociology, not only the explicandum - what we try to explain - but also the explicans - in what terms we explain it - is social Excessive reciprocation may be embarrassing, because it is a bid for a more extensive exchange relation than one may be willing to enter.
exchange and power in social life, Peter M. Blau contributes to an understanding of social structure by analyzing the social makomamoa.comion to the links between social exchange theory and theories of social. Exchange and power in social life of social profits receive reciprocate requires respect significance social approval social associations social class social exchange social integration social interaction social norms social relations social rewards social solidarity social status social structure society stratum subordinates substructures.
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p The expectations of people govern the satisfactions they find in social life and hence their reactions to social experiences.
p Power is the resource that permits an individual or group to coordinate the efforts of many others. 6. Blast P M.
Exchange and ~ssn’erin social life. New Brunswick. NJ: Transaction. p.
7. AlexandrrJ C, GIeSSeIS B, Mueodi R & Smelner N 3, eds. The micm-macmlink. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, ) p. Cc/s - ‘ S. This Week’s Citation Classic® ~ BInu P M. Exchange and power in sociai life. New York:. Exchange and Power in Social Life: Peter M.
Blau. Introduction. The aim of the book is to understand social structure by understanding the processes that govern the associations among people.
The book is an attempt to provide a foundation, a first step, in a broader theory of social organization.Exchange in social life